Transactions, no. 20
The image of a centre depends on the theoretical perspectives and/or concepts being used. In his classical article on centre-periphery relations in a Turkish context, Serif Mardin contrasted centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman empire with those of traditional Iran, on one hand, and with those of the modem nation state in the West, on the other. As against the Iranian rulers, who were often merely "grand manipulators", the methods used by the Ottomans were more "ingenious and varied".